Deploying Infrastructure in Azure Using ARM Templates

I have recently been looking at using Azure Resource Manager templates (ARM) to deploy and redeploy resources in Azure. I haven’t really done a lot with ARM templates so I though it might be helpful to do a few test runs and try figure out how to deploy resource in Azure using ARM templates.

In this post we will be going to through creating a ARM template from an existing resource group and what we need to do to redeploy to a new resources group.

ARM Templates are JSON files that define the infrastructure and configuration that will be deploy.

https://azure.microsoft.com/en-gb/services/arm-templates/

First we are going to export the template from Azure resource group that we want to redeploy to another resource group.

Logon to the Azure portal and go to resource groups.

Select the resource group that we want to export the template from.

Go to Automation and select export template.

This will bring up the ARM template for the resource group. We can then download the template to modify, I will be using visual studio code with the Azure Resource Manager (ARM) Tools extension added to edit the template.

Once the zip file is download and extracted there will be two JSON files, parameters’ and template.

When we look at the template file itself there will be a set of parameters. There are default values for each parameters which are the names of each resource in the resource group. I remove the default values.

The parameters are what is used to define the name of the resources that are created.

When I first started to look at the ARM templates they did seem very confusing but if you break them up in to each part instead of looking at it as a whole it made a lot easier for me to understand how the template worked.

If we take the below as a example this part of the JSON defines the virtual network and subnet to be created. It sets the location, subnet prefixes and one subnet for 10.0.0.0/24.

If there are IP address assigned or the subnet need to be changed this can be updated in the JSON file.

Once the JSON file has been modified we can then use this to deploy to Azure. The two way we will be going through in this post is using Azure portal Deploy from a custom template and second we will be going through adding the parameters to the parameters JSON and deploy using PowerShell.

First we will go through the portal deployment.

Logon to the Azure portal and go to deploy from a custom template.

We could search for template using the quick start template if we don’t have a exiting template

but we will be using build your onw template in the editor.

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Once the blade opens click load file and select the JSON template file this will then load the template.

Click save this should then a view like the below that we can manually in put the details we want to use for the deployment.

Click next and the arm template will be validated.

Click create to start the deployment.

When I deployed the template I had some issues with the VM creation.

This was caused by a few different issue. The first was the managed disk which returned the below error.

“Parameter ‘osDisk.managedDisk.id’ is not allowed.”

I found this article on Github https://github.com/Azure/azure-quickstart-templates/issues/3290 that explained the fix was to change the manageddisk from

to the below storage account type

The second issue was to do with requireGuestProvisionSignal property. I found the below forum post that said to remove the line.

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/answers/questions/332816/the-property-39requireguestprovisionsignal39-is-no.html

I removed this from the JSON.

The last issue was due to the admin password not being set. To fix this I added a new parameter at the start of the template

and set it under below under os profile

Once this was done I went back to deploy a custom template and readd the details which should now have the addtional admin password field.

The deployment now completed without issue.

The resources now be deployed to the resource group.

The second method we will be going through to deploy the ARM template is to use PowerShell.

We will be using the New-AzResourceGroupDeployment command to deploy the template.

We first will be modifying the parameters file to set the names that will be used.

First we need to install the Azure module

Install-Module -Name Az -Scope CurrentUser -Repository PSGallery -Force

Next we run

Connect-AzAccount

Next we run the New-AzResourceGroupDeployment I used the verbose parameter to get more details on the deployment. We will be calling the template and parameter JSON files.

New-AzResourceGroupDeployment -ResourceGroupName "resource group"  -TemplateFile "path to template json" -TemplateParameterFile "path to parameters json" 

Below is the command running and provisioning the resources in the template.

Once the deployment completes all the resources will show under the resource group.

We can also use the ARM template to redeploy a resource that has been removed.

If we run the New-AzResourceGroupDeployment again after a resource has been deleted the deployment picks up that the missing resources and redeploys.

This was my first attempt at doing ARM and it not as complicated as I first thought I will probable do a few more post in the future after I have some more time working with ARM templates.

Microsoft Graph Report on Azure Role Assignments

In this post we will be going through creating an automate report to list all assigned Azure roles and user/group assignments using Microsoft Graph SDK.

This can be useful for environments that haven’t implemented Microsoft privileged identity management for roles management. This can be used to keep track of roles assignments in Azure.

I will be using Microsoft Graph SDK, if you haven’t used this before I have done a previous post on installing and getting start with the Graph SDK.

I will be using a app registration in Azure AD with certificate authentication (I covered this in one of my previous posts) so I don’t have to use any username or password with the script. We will need to add the required API permission.

To find the specific commands that I needed to use, I generally search for them on the Graph module reference document link below as there are a lot of commands in the Graph SDK module.

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/powershell/module/microsoft.graph.applications/?view=graph-powershell-beta

To add the API permission logon to Azure portal

https://portal.azure.com

Open Azure Active Directory > App registrations

Select the Graph registration that was previously created. Under the API permissions select add permissions and add the the required application permissions to run the command.

In this case we will be using the rolemanagment.read.all

Once the API permission is added we can start to create the script.

To get the list of directory roles that are currently in use use

Get-MgDirectoryRole

Then to get the assigned objects use the below command and copy the ID to view details.

Get-MgDirectoryRoleMember -DirectoryRoleId IDValue

To view addtional values for the returned object use

(Get-MgDirectoryRoleMember -DirectoryRoleId IDValue).AdditionalProperties

The full script can be downloaded from the below github link and

https://github.com/TheSleepyAdmin/Scripts/blob/master/MSGraph/RoleAssigment/Get-AdminRolesAssigment.ps1

Below is what the export will look like.

VMware List All Port Groups and Associated VM’s Using PowerCLI

During a recent project we have been starting to use network segregation to give more security and control instead of using a flat network.

This has lead to VM’s being broken up in to there own VMware port groups and segregated VLAN’s.

There are now old port groups that have had all VM’s removed, so we wanted to report on any port groups that have no VM’s associated so that they can be removed as we will hit a issue with max VLAN limit per physical interface.

The quickest way I could think of to create the report was to use PowerCLI, in this post we will go through the process and commands used to create the report.

First we need to connect to vCenter using PowerCLI

We will be using a few different commands in the script.

First we will need to get list of port groups will only be getting distributed port groups as we don’t use standard port groups.

Get-VDPortgroup

Second part of the script is to get the port group view using get-view

Get-View -ViewType Network -Property Name -Filter @{"Name" = "portgroup name"}

We will be using UpdateViewData to add some addtional values to the view to make the script quicker and easier to read see below link for more details on UpdateViewData.

https://blogs.vmware.com/PowerCLI/2011/08/optimize-the-performance-of-powerclis-views.html

To find the properties we wanted to report on we used

Get-VM -Name VMName | Get-View

Use Get-VIObjectByVIView to get the host information.

$vm = Get-VM -name VMName | get-view
(Get-VIObjectByVIView $vm.runtime.host).name

I want to report on the VM name, Host, Cluster and PowerState.

Below we will get the view for the port group and

$networks = Get-View -ViewType Network -Property Name -Filter @{"Name" = "portgroup name"}

$networks | ForEach-Object{($_.UpdateViewData("Vm.Name","Vm.Runtime.Host.Name","Vm.Runtime.Host.Parent.Name","vm.Runtime.PowerState"))}

We can run the below to check if the addtional information has been added to the veiw

$networks.LinkedView.vm.name

Once we have the view working and adding the properties we want we can start to create the full script.

The full script can be copied from the below github link.

https://github.com/TheSleepyAdmin/Scripts/blob/master/VMware/Network/VMware_PortGroupReport.ps1

There are two parameters in the script.

To just output to the console screen use -ConsoleOnly parameter.

To export to csv use the -ReportExport parameter.

Below is a example of the exported csv.

VMware PowerCLI Module 12.4 Update Error

With the release of VMware PowerCLI 12.4 I was updating the module on my LAB servers so I could check out the new command.

When upgrading I was getting the below error which is due to VMware changing the certificate authority used to publish the new module.

Authenticode issuer ‘E=noreply@vmware.com, CN=”VMware, Inc.”, O=”VMware, Inc.”, L=Palo Alto, S=California, C=US’ of the new module ‘VMware.VimAutomation.Sdk’ with version ‘12.4.0.18627054’ from root
certificate authority.

In the release notes from VMware there is a know issue with the certificate. The fix is to remove and re-install the module.

https://blogs.vmware.com/PowerCLI/2021/09/powercli-12-4-whats-new.html

I though I would do a quick post on this incase anyone doesn’t know the process.

To check where the module is installed run the below command.

Get-Module -ListAvailable VMware.PowerCLI
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In my case the module was installed in C:\Program Files\WindowsPowerShell\Modules.

Next we need to remove the old modules, below is a list of the folders that make up the VMware PowerCLI 12.0 module.

After removing the folder we now have to install the new module using Install-Module

Install-Module VMware.PowerCLI

Once completed we should now have PowerCLI version 12.4

Using VMware PowerCLI Get-EsxCli

In this post we will be going through using the PowerCLI Get-EsxCli commandlet, which is used to call EsxCli command from PowerShell instead of having to SSH directly to the the ESXi host.

This can be useful when trying to gather information from multiple hosts instead of connecting on to each host with SSH or updating configuration settings.

First step is to connect to vCenter, once connected we can run the Get-EsxCli command and this will return the list of namespaces that can be use to gather information or set configuration settings.

We will be using -V2 as this sets Get-EsxCli to use version 2 interface as version 1 is being deprecated and will be removed in a later version.

Get-EsxCli -VMHost esxihost -V2

We can set the Get-EsxCli command to a variable so that we can call the namespaces, below will call the network namespace, once called there will be a list of addtiaonl namespaces that can be called.

$vmhostesxcli = Get-EsxCli -VMHost esxihost -V2
$vmhostesxcli.network

Once we select a namespace there should also be a list of methods that can be called these can be used to run specific actions like list or get to return information.

To list all nic’s we can call the nic and then list namespace

$vmhostesxcli.network.nic.list.invoke()

To gather info on details like driver version we can use the get method, in v1 you use to be able to call the nic name directly but if you try this in v2 the below error will be returned.

If specified, the arguments parameter must contain a single value of type Hashtable.

This is due to the method requiring a hash table parameter. If we call the help method it should return the valid parameters. If the parameter has a hyphens remove this or the command wont work.

For the nic namespace the parameter is nicname and needs to be called as a hash table.

$vmhostesxcli.network.nic.get.invoke(@{nicname="vmnic1"})

There might be some namespaces that have multiple properties like driverinfo under nic, these can be called by adding the property like below.

$vmhostesxcli.network.nic.get.invoke(@{nicname="vmnic1"}).DriverInfo

Now that we have the command we can start to build out a script to export information.

In this case we will be getting all hosts, listing all NIC’s and getting the drivers info.

The above shows that Get-EsxCli can be very good for retrieving information, if we wanted to set a configuration we can use similar command syntax but use the set method.

In this case we will update the Power policy settings on all host, we could do this manually by going to the Configure > Hardware > Overview > Power Management one each host and update the power policy settings

but doing this on a larger cluster is a lot of effort. To update using PowerCli we can first create the script to report on the current host power policy.

To update the policy settings we will use the set method like the below.

$vmhostesxcli.hardware.Power.policy.set.Invoke(@{id="1")})

Below are the 4 different power policy’s.

IDPower Policy
1High Performance
2Balanced
3Lower Power
4Custom

We can then take the above and create a re-usable script to report or set the power policy on all host in one go.

To download a copy of the either of the above script use the below link to my Github these can be used as reference if you want to create your own scripts for other settings.

https://github.com/TheSleepyAdmin/Scripts/tree/master/VMware/EsxCli

Upgrading VMware Tools Different Methods

Keeping VMware tools updated is an import task to improve performance and keep up with security / bug fixes. VMware tools are not required for a VM to run but are used to enable VMware features.

VMware tools can be upgrade in a few different methods. In this post we will go through some of these different methods these range from completely manual by upgrading to fully automated using VM options, scripting or application deployment.

First method is to manually mount the tools on the VM by right clicking and then install in the guest OS, this is the slowest method and is fine if there is a few VM to upgrade but not really great at scale.

Second method is to set the VMware tools to check for upgrades during power on. This method can be good when doing OS patching as when patching a VM the tools will also be upgraded.

To enabled this either edit the VM setting and go to VM Options > VMware tools > Tools Upgrade

To enabled on multiple VM’s we can use PowerCli to bulk update the VM options.

To view the current upgrade policy we can use

(Get-VM VMName  | Get-View).config.Tools

To update the VM Option using PowerCli we can create a new VM configuration and then apply to a list of VMs in a text file using a loop. To set the upgrade policy back to manual just update tools upgrade policy from upgradeAtPowerCycle to manual.

$VMs = Get-Content C:\Temp\VMs\VMware_Tools_Upgrade.txt
$Toolsconfig = New-Object VMware.Vim.VirtualMachineConfigSpec
$Toolsconfig.tools = New-Object VMware.Vim.ToolsConfigInfo
$Toolsconfig.tools.toolsUpgradePolicy = "upgradeAtPowerCycle"

foreach ($VM in $VMs) {
Write-Warning "Setting VM Tools to Upgrade on PowerOn for $VM"
(Get-VM -Name $VM | Get-View).ReconfigVM($Toolsconfig)

 }

vCenter should show the tasks that where run to update the VM option.

Now when the VM’s reboot they should auto upgrade to the newest version.

Third method is to use a script to update the tools. This can be used when we want to have more control over when VMware tools are upgrade.

This can be done by using the VMware PowerCli Update-Tools command

For one VM we could use

Update-Tools VMName

Below is an example of using a text file with VMs names. I used the no reboot parameter to stop the VM from rebooting after the tools are updated.



$VMs = Get-Content C:\Temp\VMs\VMware_Tools_Upgrade.txt
foreach ($VM in $VMs) {
Get-VM -Name $VM  | Update-Tools -NoReboot
}

If we check vCenter we should see the upgrade task start

The last method I would use would be an application deployment tool to push out the latest VMware tools.

I use Microsoft Endpoint Configuration Manager for most of my deployment so this will be where I will be creating the deployment package.

Mount the VMware tools on on of the VMs and copy the install files.

Open the ConfigMgr console > Software Library > Application Management > Application

Create a new application and set to manual specify.

Add in the application details.

Add a new Deployment Type

Set type to manual specify.

Give the deployment a name

I used the document for the command line switches for the tools upgrade its for version 5.5 but the same switches worked.

https://docs.vmware.com/en/VMware-vSphere/5.5/com.vmware.vmtools.install.doc/GUID-CD6ED7DD-E2E2-48BC-A6B0-E0BB81E05FA3.html

Add the path to the copied install files, install command line switches and the uninstall command line (not required)

Command line: setup.exe  /S /v “/qn REBOOT=R

Next set a detection method this can be either MSI install code if available but I used file version for the vmtoolsd.exe.

below is what the detection clause should look like.

Set the install behavior to Install for system and logon requirement to Whether or not a user is logged on.

I didn’t set any requirements or dependencies. Review the summary page and then complete the application wizard.

Once completed the wizard will go back to the create application wizard.

Follow the wizard and complete.

Now that the application is create we can deploy out to the required VM’s.

Right click and go to deploy.

Select the device collection that will be used to put VMs that will have there tools upgraded.

Add the application to the required distribution points so that content is transferred.

There are two install type available or required. To force the install use required.

For scheduling I setup as soon as possible but this can be set to what ever time the application should start to install.

I left user experience and alerts as default and completed the deployment wizard.

Once the application deployment has been assigned to the client the app should now show in software center on the client and start the upgrade.

After the upgrade completes the version of VMware tools should be 11.3 and will prompt for reboot if required.

These are the main way I manage VM tools upgrades, I usually try to use VM options for most severs as it works well and requires the least manual intervention to keep VMware tools up to date.

VMware Site Recovery Manager 8.4 Upgrade Invalid certificate when reconnecting to vCenter

I was upgrading our VMware SRM appliance from version 8.2 to 8.4 recently. The upgrade completed successfully but when logged on to the SRM management console and I tried to reconfigure the appliance to connect back to vCenter I started to get a error.

To get the fixes for some of the errors I had to log a case with VMware support who where very helpfully in getting the issue resolved. So decided to do a post on this in case anyone else runs in to the same issue.

Below is the initial error I got when trying to reconnect to vCenter.

The error was about an invalid cert and failed soap response to vCenter

Exit code: 61

[backtrace begin] product: VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager, version: 8.4.0, build: build-18048862, tag: drconfig, cpu: x86_64, os: linux, buildType: release
backtrace[03] libvmacore.so[0x001BC4BD]
backtrace[04] dr-configurator[0x00151AB4]
backtrace[05] dr-configurator[0x000663BA]
backtrace[06] dr-configurator[0x000EDCB4]
backtrace[07] dr-configurator[0x000F66FC]
backtrace[08] dr-configurator[0x000F79AF]
backtrace[09] dr-configurator[0x000F1788]
backtrace[10] dr-configurator[0x000BB3DD]
backtrace[11] libvmacore.so[0x002EFFED]
backtrace[12] libvmacore.so[0x002F1C32]
backtrace[13] libvmacore.so[0x0040327E]
backtrace[14] libpthread.so.0[0x00007F87]
backtrace[15] libc.so.6[0x000F35BF]
[backtrace end]
Caused by:
(vmodl.fault.InvalidArgument) {
faultCause = (vmodl.MethodFault) null,
faultMessage = ,
invalidProperty = “Invalid certificate”
msg = “Received SOAP response fault from []: create

}

I checked the existing PSC cert in the summary page of the SRM management web client but this was fine and showing as valid, I checked the vCenter cert that was also valid so I was a bit confused as to what cert the error was actually referring to as it just said invalid certificate which isn’t all that helpful.

I decided to to check the appliance certificate and that had expired about 4 months ago.

To re-issue the cert we should just need to go to change and select change to reissue the cert, but my issue was that the appliance had previously been set with just a host name and not FQDN so when I tried to generate the cert I got an error for no FQDN.

It looks like the older version of SRM allows cert to be generated without FQDN’s but not version 8.4.

This was going to cause an issue with the site paring as the names had already been configure so most likely once the new cert was generated with the FQDN and connected to vCenter I would probable need to reconfigure the site paring.

First I had to change the host name under networking to use a FQDN.

Once that was changed I tried to re-issued the self singed cert using the new FQDN name but this failed with the below error. (This is where I got stuck and had to open a service request ๐Ÿ™‚ )

The certificate’s Subject Alternative Name does not contain one of the folowing: – an IP address that matches the SRM host IP – a DNS name that matches the SRM host name – a common Name field that matches the SRM host name.

VMware support thought the issue was due to the plugin caching the old host name, so I had to then go to reconfigure on the summary page and on name and extension had to change the local host to use the new FQDN to update the plugin settings as it was set to custom and using the old host name.

The reconfigure will most likely fail due to the cert but it will update the plugin hostname which then allow the cert to be generated.

After this I was able to generate the new cert, the web console took a few minutes to come back while the cert was updated.

Once both of the above where completed SRM successfully connect back to vCenter.

After the connection was made to vCenter I had to reconnect in the SRM site pairing to update the SRM URL and certificate from the SRM UI console.

I had to complete the exact same steps on the second appliance.

This was a bit of annoying issue to get around as the errors where pretty vague and the logs didn’t really give much information.

Hopefully the rest of my upgrade goes a bit smother than the SRM upgrade.

Migrate from Active Directory Integrated Windows Authentication VMware vSphere 7.0

VMware is depreciating Integrated Windows Authentication in vSphere 7.0. The feature will be removed in a later release. Below is from the VMware KB.

Support for IWA continues to be available in vSphere 7.0 and will be phased out in a future release. Although IWA can still be configured, we highly recommend using AD over LDAP or Federated Identity (AD FS).

Deprecation of Integrated Windows Authentication (78506) (vmware.com)

In this post we will be going through changing over to using Active Directory over LDAP. We will also be using LDAPS as this is secured with certificates and is much better from a security side and Microsoft are requiring this on applications that use LDAP.

2020 LDAP channel binding and LDAP signing requirements for Windows (microsoft.com)

If you haven’t configured a certificate on your domain controller yet to allow LDAPS I would configure this first before proceeding with the swap over to Active directory over LDAP identity provider.

If we check the existing AD IWA we can see the warning that the feature is depreciated.

I usually create a new account for each applications LDAP connections just so I keep track of what account is used where.

For LDAP authentication in a Windows domain a standard account with just domain users right should have enough permission as it best to use least privilege for service accounts.

To confirm in an Windows AD domain is setup to use LDAPS we can use the ldp on a devices that has the active directory tools enabled to confirm LDAPS connection.

Open and click connect and add in the server name, set port to 636 and tick SSL.

If the configuration is retuned then LDAPS is working.

Once we have the account created and confirmed that LDAPS is working we can start setting up AD over LDAP in vCenter.

Since we will be using the same domain name as the IWA source we need to remove this first or it will cause error when trying add the LDAPS source.

Logon to vCenter web client > Menu > Administration > single sign on > configuration.

Under Identity sources select the IWA and click remove.

Click ok to confirm removal.

Once the IWA is removed we can now add the AD LDAP connection.

Click Add in the Identity source page and select Active Directory over LDAP

Add in the required details.

Name: Friendly name for the identity source.

Base DN: Is the level at which search in AD will start for user or groups to search all AD just use the top level or select sub OU to limit the searches.

Domain name: FQDN of the domain

Domain alias: this is the NetBIOS / pre windows 2000 domain name

When I select any domain controller I was getting the below.

Cannot configure identity source due to Failed to probe provider connectivity [URI: ldaps://domainl ]; tenantName [vsphere.local], userName [User] Caused by: Can’t contact LDAP server.

To work around this I had to specific my DC manually.

As I have a certificate issue from an internal certificate authority I will be selecting the CA cert for LDAPS as this should trust any cert issued by the CA on my domain controllers.

Click Add to complete the AD over LDAP identity source.

If we check the websso.log under /var/log/vmware/sso on the vCenter appliance, we can see the certificate being verified when we logon with a domain account.

We have now move from IWA to AD over LDAP all existing groups and roles should still work.

Filtering VMware vCenter Server Events Using PowerCLI

Recently we needed to review some changes and remote console events to check what user was accessing a particular VM and what changes where made.

I find searching event in the vCenter web client is a bit slow, I prefer to use Get-VIEvent as it has multiple parameters that can be used to search and can also use regular expression to filter by patterns.

I decided to do a blog post on how to filter events to show the different options that I use regularly to filter events.

First we need to connect to vCenter sever using a computer that has PowerCLI installed

Connect-VIServer vCenterServer

Once connected we can start to use Get-VIEvent, to return event for a specific object we can use -entity parameter and the object name.

In the below example I am getting the last event for my LAB-Win10 VM

Get-VIEvent -Entity ObjectName -Maxsamples 1

We can also filter by entity and user name is we know the user is tied to the event.

Get-VIEvent -Entity VM -Username User

We can filter the events by time range.

Get-VIEvent -Start "11/07/2021 20:48" -Finish "11/07/2021 21:00" | Select-Object EventTypeId,CreatedTime

Another option for filtering is to use where-object and search for a specific event message.

Get-VIEvent -Entity VM | Where-Object {$_.FullFormattedMessage -Like "VM started"}

There are addtional properties like host, ComputeResource, datacenter…. that are not return as readable values unless you format the results.

To format the result we can use select-object and create an array to give a name to the property and select the property value. Below will show the datacenter, cluster and host the event was create on.

Get-VIEvent -Entity object -Username User | Select-Object Message,CreatedTime,UserName,@{N="DataCenter";E={$_.DataCenter.Name}},@{N="Compute";E={$_.ComputeResource.Name}},@{N="Host";E={$_.Host.Name}}

Below is an example showing what the event looks like before and after using the array’s to return the readable values.

Once we the events we want we can either review them in the PowerShell console or use Export-csv to export the results.

Audit VMware vCenter Server Permission Using PowerCLI

As part of our VMware 6.7 to 7.0 Upgrade we wanted to audit the existing vCenter server permission. We have a lot of contractors who come in to do work and users who have had permission assigned but these permission are not always removed.

We wanted to get a report that export each of the permission assigned in vCenter.

I could do this manually but this would take a while and is not that easily repeatable so I decided to create a quick script that will export the required information.

The script will be calling two command (Get-VIPermission to export permission and Get-VIRole to export the assigned privileges) and then formation the results.

The script also has some mandatory variables (one for the vCenter server and one for the export path) and there is some error handling incase there is no connection to vCenter server or the export folder doesn’t exist.

There are three type of object in VMware permissions.

  • Privilege: Allow specific actions (create, delete, manage.. ) or rights to view specific properties
  • Role : A set of privileges assigned to an object to allow assignment
  • Permission: Is either a set of a users or groups that have been assigned to a role

If we run Get-ViPermission on we will see all permission returned.

We can select one specific permission by using -principal and expand using format-list. This gives a bit more information but we are missing the assigned privilege’s.

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This is where we use Get-VIRole as this has a property that shows privileges that have been assigned to the role.

Below is an example of the script running.

.\VMware_Permissions_Audit.ps1 -VCServer lab-vc.thesleepyadmin.local -ReportExport .\

Once completed the csv file should be exported with the vCenter server name.

Below is what the csv export should look like.

Below is an example of the error handling when connection to vCenter.

The full script can be downloaded from the below link to my GitHub.

Scripts/VMware/Permissions_Audit at master ยท TheSleepyAdmin/Scripts (github.com)